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Those women who attended more sessions had higher wellbeing (0.007), self-care and infant-care self-efficacy (0.014 and 0.043, respectively), and early infant stimulation (0.019) scores. Moran added that these misogynistic forms of violence and torture are social problems that have been taught at both institutional and individual levels. Many of the teachers of this violence are working with the government, Refer to This Page military and police, and are often those same people who committed these types of crimes during the war. Moran also singled out the heads of private security industry, which according to the JASS report, has ballooned to an estimated 28,000 legal and 50,000 unregistered private security agents in the country. During the civil war, many indigenous women were forced into sexual slavery by the military.

  • A systematic review reported perinatal mental disorders were common in low- and lower-middle-income countries , affecting 16% of pregnant women and 20% of women in the postpartum period .
  • This leaves a colossal task for Guatemala’s social movements, which are increasingly led by women.
  • Through the referral of a local pro-bono immigration organization, Jones Day took on their representation in their claims for asylum.
  • Minority Rights Group and Ogiek Peoples’ Development Programme are working together to demand secure land rights for the Ogiek through litigation at the African Court of Human and Peoples Rights in Arusha, Tanzania.

All mothers felt comfortable with the circle leaders and that they could trust them. All recruited mothers were invited to complete the survey; out of the 155 study participants, 147 completed it at baseline, and 121 post-intervention. We used independent sample t-tests comparing intervention vs control on the four mean psychosocial scores and their sub-scores to test for the potential effect of the intervention compared to the control group. Self-efficacy measurement used a four-item subscale measuring self-efficacy in childcare and a four-item subscale measuring self-efficacy in self-care (overcoming daily problems; staying calm when worried, nervous, or afraid; finding reliable people for support; dedicating time to herself).

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The HSCL-25 instrument may have lacked sensitivity in our patient population, something that we will need to investigate further. We do not provide comparisons with other studies because we consider that sociocultural contexts would be so different that it makes this exercise redundant and impossible to reach conclusions. The main dynamic behind impact may have been women’s empowerment – a challenging construct to quantify. We considered the possibility of positive sociability , with participants reporting more positive outcomes so that the project might continue. Circle leaders’ own aspirations for continued employment may have resulted in them painting a more positive picture of their experiences. Sharing the sessions’ content with husbands and mothers-in-law sometimes increased their support. MAXQDA 11 (version 11.2.1) was used to organize the data and code the transcripts via thematic content analysis .

They are now in various secure locations established by our local partners on the ground in Pakistan. Although they are safer in Pakistan than Afghanistan, Hazara Shia and other religious minorities are also persecuted there. Every activist I interviewed recounted how they had been discriminated against for their ethnicity for as long as they could remember. Belen, a young woman working in a community radio station told of times when she had been denied employment over ladina women, despite having more qualifications and experience for positions. She was upset that she was seen, firstly as lower than men because of her gender and secondly as lower than other women because of her traje which represents her ethnicity as Quiché.

Indigenous women experience higher rates of partner abuse than non-indigenous women, for whom partner violence is an especially strong predictor of poor mental health . Protective factors include relative social and economic advantage, formal education, secure employment, reproductive health services, belonging to the ethnic majority, and having a respectful, trustworthy intimate partner . Women may also be better able to counter stress if they have high self-esteem and self-efficacy , effective social support , and an ability to problem-solve .

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A meta-analysis combining trials from high-income countries and two LMICs (India , China ) suggests that individual, multi-contact, and interpersonal therapy-based interventions may be most effective in preventing postnatal depression . A recent meta-analysis of psychological interventions delivered by non-specialist mental health care providers in LMICs found a pooled reduction in maternal depression, but the heterogeneity of approaches did not permit comparisons between modalities . Interventions based on biomedical models of mental illness have proven insufficient for addressing the needs of indigenous communities , and there have been calls instead for a collective, holistic, strengths-based approaches rooted in cultural identity . Historically, in the community of interest, which is in the rural Southwest corner of Guatemala bordering Mexico, a large majority (88%) of a convenience sample of women in the community-based care program self-reported postpartum contraceptive use. However, 72% of these women were using injectable contraceptives, which are considered short-acting, and are less effective at preventing unintended and closely spaced pregnancies; the second most common method was sterilization (21%). For the remaining women who did not seek sterilization or injectable contraceptives, 0.5% of them reportedly used contraceptive pills, 0.5% condoms, 0.5% lactational amenorrhea, and 1.6% reportedly relied on natural family planning. Less than 4% of women were using long-acting reversible contraceptives , which are more effective at preventing unintended and closely spaced pregnancies than injectables.

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Soldiers now are assigned public safety duties that would normally be reserved for police forces. Murders rarely result in any conviction and often are not properly investigated; less than 4 percent of all homicide cases result in conviction for the perpetrators. Perpetrators are confident they will get away with murder, in part because of the “machismo” culture in Latin America.

Both women had endured brutal physical and sexual violence at the hands of the mother-in-law’s husband who was the patriarch of the household. Despite numerous and repeated attempts of the women to seek protection from the Guatemalan criminal justice system, the government did not protect them and the violence continued unabated, forcing them to flee Guatemala. Jones Day handled the women’s claims for asylum, which included lengthy briefing and direct testimony in immigration court. After two days of testimony and cross examination from the government, the judge granted both the women’s and their minor children’s claims for asylum. The nurse teams are comprised of two nurses, who are responsible for a segment of the communities in the region. There are ten communities in the Madres Sanas program that were combined into eight clusters; our biostastician did this in order to achieve similar cluster sizes, which was determined by the number of births in the communities in 2017. Because our study enrolls women at their final Madres Sanas visit, which is a postpartum visit that occurs about forty days out from delivery, the cluster size was based on delivery volume of the communities.

AMC reviewed both analyses and extracted key dimensions and quotes for publication. A total of 176 women in the eight participating communities met eligibility criteria. One community and its 16 participants withdrew from the study prior to randomisation. Without subsampling, in the remaining seven communities, we allocated 84 women to the intervention arm and the remaining 71 were allocated to a control arm .

By accounting for the gendered and historical dimensions of the cultural practices of violence and impunity, we offer a re-conceptualization of the social relations that perpetuate femicide as an expression of post-war violence. A Guatemalan woman and her daughter-in-law who had both endured extreme violence and oppression fled Guatemala and entered the United States with their four minor children. Through the referral of a local pro-bono immigration organization, Jones Day took on their representation in their claims for asylum.

Representation of women at the local level, in the 2011 elections only 7 women were elected as Major . A more positive experience was the representation to the Central American Parliament , 6 of the 20 Guatemalan seats were won by women, and this is equivalent to 30%. As a result of the cohesion and work of the women parliamentarians, one of them was elected President to the PARLACEN in 2014. Guatemala has not passed any laws or other affirmative measures regarding the political participation of women. The Constitutional Court passed a favorable opinion on the Reform to the Electoral and Political Parties Law, the final approval to this initiative is pending. Political Participation, for the 2011 elections 7, 340,841 were registered voters, 51% were women, showing a 46.9% increase from the 2007 registry. The most significant change was the participation of 6 women candidates as part of the 11 presidential nominations, two of them indigenous women, three were presidential candidates and three candidates to the vice-presidency.